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From Iran to Chile to Sudan, protests are taking place all over the world

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From Chile to Sudan, Lebanon to Colombia, increasing anger and frustration about the increasing economic and social inequality, politics corruption and disillusion with democratically elected and authoritarian governments have led to a wide range of massive protests in the past months.

At first glance it looks like they are marking a distinctive period in international politics. But analysts say that there have been several large-scale mass rocks in recent decades.

The background to the protests of the 1980s and 1990s was largely the spread of democracy, particularly in Eastern Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union. What has changed is that since the beginning of the 2000s large protests have become more broad, and reach all corners of the world.

"Governments are performing no worse than 30 years ago, but as they grow, they create winners and losers," said Thomas Carothers, a democracy expert at Washington-based Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. "Citizens now have higher expectations … over the past 10 years we have seen an increasing pattern of large-scale protests."

He added that the power of social media has also helped mobilize demonstrators. "I see technology as an accelerator," he said.

A 2013 study that analyzed 843 protests in 84 countries around the world between January 2006 and July 2014 showed that the main complaints were economic injustice and an observed failure of political systems.

Current protest movements are often led by financially tied young adults who are increasingly tired of their situation, which they believe is the result of corrupt political elites.

Many were driven by country-specific complaints, often as a result of the effects of the global financial crisis of 2008, according to Carothers.

“This is a very broad rejection of systems. It's not very ideological, & he said and added that large-scale protests have been taking place for a long time authoritarian and democratic nations.

Some major protests in one issue have quickly changed to larger grievances.

In Iran this month it was an official announcement that gasoline prices would be increased by as much as 50%, leading to mass protests, which have since changed demonstrations against government corruption.

"There is frustration about how political systems work and how they divide resources and power," said Robert O & # 39; Brien, Professor of Political Science at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada.

Despite the increase in large-scale protests, the success rate seems to have fallen since 2010, according to one Study of 2017 led by Erica Chenoweth, a political scientist at Harvard University.

"Authoritarian leaders have begun developing and systematizing advanced techniques to undermine and thwart non-violent activists," Chenoweth wrote.

According to John Chalcraft, a professor of Middle Eastern history and politics at the London School of Economics and Political Science, another reason for a decline is that people are embracing a leaderless protest model.

"You see it in Lebanon and to some extent in Hong Kong … there are limits to what they can achieve because you need leadership to engage in protests and transform civil society," he said.

Below you can see what is going on current protests:

Iranians wave a national flag in support of the government of the Islamic Republic and the top leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, in the city of Ardabil, as President Hassan Rouhani said civilians had defeated an "enemy conspiracy" behind a wave of violent street protests.

(AFP / Getty Images)

I ran
Shortly after Iranian President Hassan Rouhani announced last week that fuel subsidies would be reduced, resulting in a gasoline increase of up to 50%, tens of thousands rallied about Iran. Authorities responded by shooting tear gas and live ammunition in crowds, according to a report from Amnesty International. At least 106 people have been killed since protesters took to the streets on November 15, the report found. The actual number could be much higher, but because authorities blocked Internet access for Iranians since November 16, the flow of information stagnated. On Thursday, some provinces in Iran reported that the internet had been restored, the semi-official ISNA news agency said.

SUDAN-DEMO-POLITICS

A supporter of ousted President Omar Bashir of Sudan during a demonstration in court in the capital Khartoum during his trial.

(Ebrahim Hamid / AFP / Getty Images)

Sudan
protests started last December thenPresident Omar Hassan Ahmed Bashir's decision to trim bread and fuel subsidies. After Bashir was overthrown in a coup in April after almost three decades of rule, mass demonstrations continued, with protesters shouting the military government transfer power to citizens. In August, protest leaders – mostly consisting of young doctors and lawyers – achieved a power distribution that would last 39 months.

Anti-government protests in Beirut, Lebanon

Demonstrators roast potatoes outside the Lebanese government palace on the 35th day of nationwide anti-government protests in downtown Beirut.

(Wael Hamzeh / EPA / REX / Shutterstock)

Lebanon
What started as a protest against a tax on WhatsApp, turned into 4 million people from all walks of life last month. That led to the expulsion of Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri, almost two weeks after the demonstrations broke out. But tensions remain high with calls for an end to government mismanagement and corruption. The protests have been largely peaceful, though Amnesty International documented incidents of excessive force. One person died when a Lebanese soldier used live ammunition and shot at demonstrators. The person who was murdered was Alaa Abou Fakhr, a 39-year-old father of three.

Chili
Just as in Iran and Lebanon, protests in Chile were caused by an increase in the price of an economic base. In this case it is was a peak of 4 cents in subway rates announced on October 6. Students led and organized social media campaigns that encouraged people to jump off the metro with tourniquets. The demonstrators later began demanding improvements in pensions, health care and education. They now call for a new constitution to replace the constitution that was drafted in 1980 during General Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship.

Colombia
Tens of thousands of Colombians dissatisfied with President Ivan Duque and economic inequality, took to the streets on Thursday in the midst of growing unrest in South America; have protests Bolivia, Ecuador also rocked like Chili. According to the World Bank, in 2017 Colombia received the top 10% of earners 39% of the country's income.

Iraq
More than 300 people – including at least 13 Sunday – have died during demonstrations that seized Baghdad and Shiite Muslim dominated provinces since 1 October. Largely leaderless, the protests have been organized on social media throughout citizens frustrated by government corruption and high unemployment. The protesters also want to revise the sectarian power-sharing system in Iraq, imposed after the US-led invasion in 2003. Authorities responded with live ammunition and tear gas. Although the majority of the country's income comes from oil – an estimated $ 79 billion worth it – ordinary Iraqis struggle to make ends meet; According to the World Bank, 22% of Iraqis live in poverty and unemployment is around 11%.

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